Earn Your Master's in Public Administration (MPA)

Master of Public Administration (MPA) in Context

In Context
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Why earn an MPA degree?
Improved employability
In a competitive market, candidates who hold a master’s degree in public administration have a competitive advantage, even if the job only requires a bachelor’s degree. [5] Get Details
Broad career opportunities
Studying for an MPA degree opens up a broad range of career opportunities, as the area of public service is so vast. It is ideal for anyone who wants to have a meaningful career in which they can make a difference for their community or the individuals around them. Get Details
Salary increase
Another reason why students might choose to study for an MPA degree is that it can lead to a salary increase. For example, the average entry-level professional holding just a bachelor’s degree earns approximately approximately $3,836 per month, or $46,032 per year, depending on the job role and sector that you work in. [2] Get Details
Professional and personal development
Another reason why many people pursue a degree in public administration — and why they want to work in public service — relates to the word “service.” Many people in public service want to make a difference, and the more knowledge and experience you have, the more you can do to tackle the challenging issues on the public agenda. An MPA can equip you with the tools to help find and implement solutions. Get Details

Career Advancement Overview

There are a wide variety of roles that can open up to you with a master’s in public administration. A few roles graduates often pursue include:

  • Policy analyst
  • Program manager
  • Researcher
  • Grant writer
  • Budget analyst
  • Government official
  • Nonprofit leader

Master’s graduates can also continue into doctoral study, which could lead to research and teaching roles. Among graduates of Master of Public Administration degree programs, 44% work in government after six months, and 25% work in non-governmental organizations. Another 20% work in the private sector, and 4% pursue higher education. [12]

Learn More

Demographics and psychographics

In Context

Public administration job growth

As the public administration sector is continually changing and developing, an increasing number of graduates — around 20% — are opting to work within the private sector. [16] This is due to the increased share of private sector careers available throughout the United States, although this will vary depending on where you live. [17] However, while many job roles only require a bachelor’s degree, many employers prefer candidates to have an MPA degree. [18] [19]

The career you pursue will likely be influenced by a number of factors, including what interests you, the difference you’re looking to make in society, and the opportunities in your area. Salary is also a consideration, and there are many well-paying public service jobs. Below are some public service jobs along with their upper range salaries, according to PublicServiceCareers.org: [20]

  • Local Government Analyst: $45,000
  • Program Coordinator: $48,000
  • Program Assistant/Manager: $63,000
  • Policy Analyst: $68,000
  • Statistician: $65,000
  • Research Associate: $60,000
  • Marketing/PA Specialist: $85,000
  • City Manager/Chief Administrative Officer: $108,000

Curriculum Overview

When exploring public administration degrees, you will find that many programs begin with a core curriculum. There is then further opportunity to specialize and concentrate your study, and some offer opportunities for work experience.
A typical public administration degree program involves coursework that covers areas such as: [21]

  • Public administration
  • Managerial economics
  • Budgeting/finance
  • Quantitative methods
  • Ethics
  • Political and legal processes

This work equips students with the organizational, human resources, and budgeting skills required for a career in public services.

Areas of focus can include management, policy analysis, and leadership. It is important to consider how the specialization options can impact your career. For example, if your program is particularly focused on policy analysis, you might study courses that are related closely to statistics and analysis. Your key projects may also relate to the application of policy analysis methods with contextual issues.

If your focus is on management, you will likely cover topics including:

  • Human resources and personnel
  • Financial management
  • Information systems
  • Key management principles

You may also have to complete a project, either group or individual, in which you spend time working in or researching a managerial work environment. If you have already held a career in public service, this type of MPA degree may be best suited to you. It will equip you with the skills in higher level leadership and management.

If you hope to follow the leadership pathway, the core curriculum will likely be dedicated to covering political processes and decision-making. You will explore individual and group leadership, expanding your own skill set through research and practical opportunities. Your program may also include a thesis or advanced policy simulation, in which you can use your knowledge to produce a high-quality final project on a focused topic.

Studying for your master’s degree may include field work or practical explorations to see public administration in action. It will also include a combination of group work discussion and presentations, lectures, and seminars. Case studies that explore key contextual problems will be used extensively.

Typical elective courses

When looking at the curriculum overview, you may also find that there are opportunities to tailor your degree toward your interests through elective courses. These will often provide MPA students with the chance to create a specialist focus in their studies. These can be most beneficial when you have a strong understanding of what you want to do after graduation.

Electives allow you to gain the key skills you will need the most. For example, if you want to work in government, you may find courses in policy-making most useful. Alternatively, if you are interested in a more administrative role, you may need more knowledge of human resources and budgeting and finance. If you’re seeking a leadership role, this can also be a good focus to study.

Tailoring your knowledge this way ensures you have the core skills and tools needed for these roles, but also makes you more employable as you can demonstrate a strong understanding of what is needed. It reduces how much training you will require in your job as well.

Some other specializations that you could explore include the following:

  • Nonprofit Management: This helps students prepare for leadership roles in non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
  • Health Care Management: This helps students prepare for leadership roles in hospitals and other health-related organizations.
  • International Development: This specialization can help prepare students to pursue careers with international relief agencies and other aid organizations.
  • Urban Affairs: This will help prepare students for job roles in agencies or businesses in an urban setting.
  • Human Resources Management: This pathway can help students learn effective way to manage team operations internal to a business or organization.
  • State/local Government Administration: This is for students looking to take on leadership roles within state and/or local government.
  • Financial Management: This will equip students with the knowledge for roles as financial managers within public sector agencies.

Admissions Requirements Overview

While each program will set its admission requirements based on its own criteria, many requirements are universal across all programs. No matter where you apply, you can expect to provide items like transcripts from previous degrees or coursework; standardized test scores; a personal statement or essay; letters of recommendation; and an overview of relevant work experience.

In certain cases, some of these requirements may be waived.

You don’t necessarily have to come from a public administration background to pursue an MPA degree, and often students will have studied a range of other undergraduate degrees.

These might include:

  • Sociology
  • Environmental science
  • Foreign languages
  • Political science
  • English
  • Psychology
  • Health
  • Criminal justice
  • Information technology
  • Economics
  • Social work
  • History

For more information about admissions, please visit our admissions requirements page.

Online Master of Public Administration degrees

There are many reasons why full-time, on-campus study may not be the best option for you, such as family responsibilities, a desire to keep working while you study, and saving on travel expenses. For these reasons and more, an online program offers a great, flexible alternative.

Distance learning allows you to earn the same degree as on-campus students while studying when it is most convenient for you without traveling to campus.

Some of the benefits of studying for an online MPA degree include:

  • An interactive, connected academic experience centered around digital media
  • Active participation with highly trained and knowledgeable faculty and peers
  • The opportunity to work with classmates from across the country and world
  • Flexible learning in which you can engage with the curriculum via video lectures, interactive assessments, social interaction, real-life case studies, and digital resources
  • The opportunity to access all of the content at any time, from any device, and in any location

Program Length Overview

The length of an online master’s degree program can depend on a number of variables, perhaps the most prominent of which is the pace at which you choose to study. You can finish a typical master’s degree program in about two to three years if you choose to study full-time, although some accelerated programs may be able to help you finish more quickly.

Online master’s degree programs tend to offer flexibility suitable for students who choose to study part-time. This option will likely extend your time to completion, but it can allow you to study while fulfilling your familial, social, and professional obligations.

You can find more information on this topic at our program length overview page.

Alternative Degrees/Fields of Study

There are a number of different degree options to pursue if you are interested in something similar to public administration. These include the Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Public Policy, and Master of Public Health. It is important to recognize that there are core differences between these degrees.

An MBA degree prepares you to enter the field of business instead of a public service focus. This could be a hindrance if you were interested in working in government. The MPA is about managing key issues in the public interest, meaning you can really make a difference. It is about finding practical solutions and emphasizing social good. [22]

While a Master of Public Policy degree will help you to explore data management, financial modeling, and statistical analysis and creation, an MPA degree is more suitable for those who are looking to head into leadership-focused careers.

The Master of Public Health degree is best suited for those who want to pursue a career in public health and health care. This is often touched on in an MPA degree but is not the core focus. An MPA degree gives a far broader overview of the world community and its concerns.

These types of focused degrees can prepare you for business, health, or public policy jobs, but they can make you less appealing to public sector employers because you won’t have the same public administration knowledge. It is, therefore, important to consider what career choices you hope to make after graduation.

Accreditation Overview

Regional accreditation is the most prestigious type of accreditation that an online or traditional college or university can receive. It is granted only after careful consideration by private, not-for-profit organizations tasked with evaluating educational quality.

Regional accreditation is particularly important if you anticipate that you might want to transfer credits from one online degree program to another or use those credits to pursue another degree. Most regionally accredited schools will only accept credits from other regionally accredited institutions of higher learning.

You can find more information on this topic at our regional accreditation page..

National accreditation

A Master of Public Administration degree can gain national accreditation through the
international accrediting body for MPA programs, the National Association of Schools of Public Administration and Administration (NASPAA). [24] NASPAA accredits 191 programs at 177 schools. This is a voluntary, peer-reviewed process that marks a program as making a long-term commitment to providing a top public service education. NASPAA accreditation is also a sign to employers that your education lives up to the highest standards in the industry. [25]

Relevant industry associations and organizations

  • American Society for Public Administration [26]
  • National Association of School of Public Affairs and Administration [27]
  • American Association for Budget and Program Analysis [28]
  • Alliance for Nonprofit Management [29]
  • Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management [30]
  • Federal Managers Association [31]

History of the Degree

The public administration sector dates back to ancient Greece when it became important to put in place laws that helped serve the public and created an efficient, fair society. While the philosopher Plato was among the first to develop the concept of democracy, it was the Romans that elevated democracy through administrative hierarchies, similar to present-day democracy. [32]

The Master of Public Administration degree was first introduced in 1913 when the University of Michigan’s political science department created the qualification in order to counteract the inefficiency and corruption within the government. The goal, through this research bureau, was to introduce “practical work” to the government. It has since grown in popularity as a degree choice, with many universities across America now offering this program. [33] [34]

The modern history of public administration is tied and directed largely by those who involved in education. The first two major textbooks, by L.D. White and W.F. Willoughby, helped establish orthodox public administration in the mid-1920s and were revised and rewritten through the 1930s. [23]

The 40s, following World War II, students and professors of the subject began questioning some of the industry’s core mechanics, which they had found to be inadequate to address their efforts during the war. This led to a more modern, outcome-driven philosophy of public administration that valued results and the scientific method. [23]

Public administration is an ever-changing and evolving sector, responsive to the changing needs and demands of the community, individuals, and society overall. Public administrators in the United States have a growing influence over public policy, law, and other aspects of the population’s daily lives. As such, a master’s degree in public administration can be dynamic, challenging, and engaging.

Tuition and Fees Overview

 

There are a number of factors that can greatly affect how much your education will cost. These include whether you attend a public or private institution; whether you attend as an in-state or out-of-state student; and whether you qualify for financial aid like grants or scholarships.

For a more detailed breakdown of tuition, fees, and other financial issues, please visit our tuition and fees page..

Public administration is the implementation of government policies. [35] The study of public administration looks at the process of creating, interpreting, applying, and effecting the law honestly, economically, and efficiently.

The curriculum usually takes an interdisciplinary approach to teach skills and techniques to lead, implement policies, solve problems, and improve efficiency within an organization or government. While this degree prepares students to work for all levels of government and nonprofit organizations, it can be flexible enough to apply in the private sector. A public administration master’s degree is designed for professionals who want to develop management and implementation skills needed to take on leadership roles in public service.

Most PA master’s degrees take an interdisciplinary approach. It focuses on governance and policy issues. Coursework covers key administrative areas such as policy, leadership, ethics, and budgeting.

Most Master of Public Administration degrees will take around two years to complete.

MPA degree programs typically require between 36 and 48 credit hours.

Tuition for an online MPA degree can range from $29,000 to $73,000, while an average program costs about $45,000.

Generally there are supplementary costs apart from tuition. The tuition does not usually include the cost of books or additional fees. These additional costs will vary from program to program.

The largest provider of student financial aid in the nation is the Federal Student Aid office in the U.S. Department of Education. It provides college-level or career school students with loans,
grants, and work-study funds. You can apply for federal financial aid through the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, commonly known as FAFSA.

There are numerous other scholarships available, but you will need to research which opportunities you’re qualified to pursue. Many states, associations, websites, and businesses award scholarships based on specific criteria. Be sure to do your research and apply for any scholarships you’re qualified to be awarded. [45]

Start with a cost-benefit analysis based on the price of the degree and the potential ROI. Weigh the full cost against the positive outcomes you expect as a graduate, which may include a boost in earning potential, upward mobility, or job satisfaction.

While a majority of online MPA programs do not require prerequisite coursework before getting started, a few programs do require an academic history in classes related to American government and policy. Be sure to check with your program of interest.

In most cases, you do not need a specific undergraduate degree to qualify for the MPA program.

Most MPA programs do not require GRE/GMAT scores for admission. For schools that do require GRE/GMAT, this can usually be waived if you have already completed a Ph.D. or JD degree or have at least five years of professional work experience. In some cases, if your undergraduate GPA is less than required, the school may request a GRE/GMAT score.

All MPAs require an undergraduate degree from a regionally accredited university or internationally equivalent bachelor’s degree for admission. In terms of professional background, it varies between schools. Some programs require work or volunteer experience in public service as a demonstration of commitment to serving the public, while other programs prefer but do not require this.

Not necessarily. Most programs welcome students who are entering or switching to the field with no prior experience in this field.

Absolutely, there are many online MPA programs that do not require work experience. You should expect to write additional essays to provide information about your skills and talents that work experience would have otherwise demonstrated. Be sure to confirm with the university you are considering.

Because most MPA programs do not require personal interviews for admission, the program admissions committee gets to know you, your passion for public service, and your readiness for graduate studies through these personal statements.

Usually MPA programs require at least two letters of recommendation. These references can come from people who are, or have been, in a position to evaluate your work in an academic or professional setting. Letters of recommendation should come from supervisors, current or former employers, professors, or mentors. Personal recommendations are usually not preferred or even accepted.

Many institutions offer MPA degrees online.

Most institutions do not indicate on the degree that it was earned online.

Yes, typically schools follow the same curriculum for their online programs as they do for their campus-based programs.

In an asynchronous program, the student does not have to log in to attend class at specific times — a big plus for many online graduate students. Synchronous coursework has to be completed within a set timeframe. This is typically done for group projects, seminars, presentations, and other learning initiatives that require multiple attendees. The elements of asynchronous and synchronous learning in your online program depend on the professor and class itself. Once you enroll, reach out to teachers for specifics, but remember that the curriculum may be divided into these two subsets.

When considering an MPA degree, key attributes you should look for can be categorized into two types:

  1. Core competencies needed for your career / your area of interest in public administration
    1. Accreditation — Is the program or the school accredited to ensure I am getting the best quality education?
    2. Curriculum — How will this program prepare me for my career? Five core competencies that MPA programs should demonstrate include: leading and managing in public governance; participating in and contributing to the policy process; analyzing, synthesizing, thinking critically, solving problems, and making decisions; articulating and applying a public service perspective; and communicating and interacting productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry. [36]
    3. Concentration/specialization options — What are the available concentrations and are they of interest? What kind of courses are included in each?
    4. Internship availability — Is an internship an option should I want to build work experience?
  2. Logistics of the program
    1. Delivery method — Is it 100 % online? Otherwise, how much time is required on-campus?
    2. Program length — What is the recommended time to completion? What is the average time to completion?
    3. Tuition and fees — Is there a difference in tuition for in/out of state? Are there additional fees on top of tuition?
    4. Student support — What support systems are in place for my success?

No — attaining a management/senior positions is not guaranteed through the completion of a master’s degree. These positions often require many years of experience and a significant level of career achievement. However, an advanced degree can help you develop the necessary knowledge and skills required for these positions and also prove your dedication to the field.

A general MPA program provides students a comprehensive learning experience. You may touch on different specializations in small doses, rounding off your education. General MPA programs usually focus on key management topics. On the other hand, picking a concentration will help give you an advantage in that specific discipline.

Some concentrations offered include nonprofit management, public leadership and management, public health, and urban management.

Look for an MPA online curriculum that suits your needs. Pick one that has a specialization that aligns with your career goals if you know what you want to do. Find a curriculum that also fits your schedule or helps you get closer to certification or career advancement.

Typical core courses focus on topics such as:

  • Economics for policy
  • Human resources management
  • Principles of public administration
  • Public finance
  • Policy analysis
  • Research methods
  • Strategic leadership
  • Every program has its own set of core courses. Review each course description and determine if they are of interest and can support your goals. If you choose a program with a concentration, there may be specific courses required to complete the concentration.

Based on NASPAA’s accreditation standards, a master’s degree program’s primary focus is to prepare students to be leaders, managers, and analysts in public affairs, public administration, and public policy. [37] The five core competencies that MPA programs should demonstrate include: leading and managing in public governance; participating in and contributing to the policy process; analyzing, synthesizing, thinking critically, solving problems and making decisions; articulating and applying a public service perspective; and communicating and interacting productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry. [38]

Typically taken during the final semester of the program, capstone or portfolio courses allow you to demonstrate competency for public service by applying the knowledge and skills you have learned from the program. The approach to capstone differs by program. It can be:

  • A collection of sample work from all courses
  • A research project
  • A policy analysis applied project based on the student’s or a client’s real-world challenges
  • A combination of the above

Most capstone courses are supervised individually or on a small group basis to provide constructive guidance during the project.

The majority of MPA programs have a capstone requirement.

There are two types of accreditation to consider: programmatic and institutional.
Programmatic accreditations are administered by professionally oriented speciality bodies. The accrediting bodies judge a program’s educational quality based on a set standard. The Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration (NASPAA) is the most recognized accrediting agency in the public service field. Institutional accreditations are administered by regional agencies. They evaluate colleges and universities as a whole to ensure they meet certain standards of educational quality. The regional accrediting bodies that oversee higher education institutions in their areas are:

  • Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE)
  • New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education (NEASC-CIHE)
  • The Higher Learning Commission
  • Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU)
  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
  • Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission (WASC)

NASPAA stands for Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration. It’s a global membership organization of graduate education programs in public policy, affairs, and public administration. It also oversees the peer review process that accredits master’s degree programs in these fields from around the world. The Commission on Peer Review and
Accreditation (COPRA) is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). [46]

Not all MPA programs are NASPAA accredited, as submission for accreditation review is voluntary. Currently, 191 programs at 177 schools (59% of member institutions) are accredited. [39] The accreditation provides an indication of quality, as the program has been reviewed by industry professionals and has met a set of standards to ensure it will provide the knowledge needed for a student to succeed in the real-world environment. If you are considering an MPA program without NASPAA accreditation, you will need to perform extra due diligence in research to understand the outcomes of the non-accredited program and to ensure the program’s vision aligns to your goals.

The NASPAA’s accreditation process follows a set of standards and policies that can be found at their website. The five core competencies that MPA programs should demonstrate include: leading and managing in public governance; participating in and contributing to the policy process; analyzing, synthesizing, thinking critically, solving problems and making decisions; articulating and applying a public service perspective; and communicating and interacting productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry. [40]

No. Program cost is not determined by whether or not it is NASPAA accredited.

As a graduate from an accredited program, your degree will remain accredited because the curriculum at the time of your graduation was accredited.

You do not need to have a certification/license to pursue a career in public service.

Yes, many universities offer certificate programs in public administration. Many are the same universities that offer a master’s in public administration.

Certificate programs provide foundational knowledge in select key topics or one specific topic within public administration. They are intended to complement your experience or master’s / professional studies. Certificate programs typically require four to five courses and usually provide students the opportunity to complete them within a year.

MPA graduates are found mainly in the public and nonprofit sectors, but there are also many in the private sector. Employment opportunities for candidates with an MPA include:

  • Executive director for economic development and planning
  • Director of community impact
  • Director of operations
  • Program analyst
  • Community development senior associate
  • Chief administrative officer
  • Quality assurance coordinator
  • Research associate for public policy
  • City Manager
  • Public Official
  • Police Officer
  • Nonprofit positions

Annual salary can range from $40,000 to $140,000.

MPA graduates are found mainly in the public and nonprofit sectors such as federal agencies, municipal offices, service associations, hospitals, and public schools. There are also many in the private sector for organizations such as consulting firms, corporations, and investment groups.

As MPA graduates can fill various types of jobs, the overall field is predicted to see 6-10% growth from 2014 to 2024, according to U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Urban and regional planners will see a 6% increase. [41] Administrative services managers will see an 8% increase. [42] Social and community service managers will see a 10% increase. [43]

While an MPA emphasizes the management and implementation of policies, an MPP typically emphasizes the research and evaluation of policies. Both programs have concentration options and usually can be completed in around two years. You should choose the degree that best supports your interests and career goals. There are also programs that blend the two curriculums. [47]

While both degrees emphasize management of organizations, each degree focuses on the application of business knowledge in different settings. The MPA focuses on management within public service sectors — mainly government and nonprofit. It’s intended for those with an interest in creating or implementing public policy. The MBA focuses on management in the private and public sectors, mainly of corporations. Both degrees have online delivery formats and most can be completed in as few as two years. You should choose the degree that best supports your interests and career goals.

The MPA focuses on management in public service sectors — mainly government and nonprofit organizations. It’s intended for those with an interest in creating or implementing public policy. The MHA focuses on management in healthcare organizations and corporations. Both degrees have online programs and most can be completed in as few as two years. There are MPA programs with concentrations in health administration if you want a bit of both curriculums.

SARA (State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement) applies only to distance education programs in the United States that cross state lines. This agreement is made between member states and establishes comparable postsecondary national standards for distance education courses.

Not every state is a SARA member. Through SARA, member states only have to receive authorization in their home state. Without SARA, schools in non-member states would have to receive authorization in their home state and the state of each of their online students. It’s not impossible, but not as simple. [44]

Every school has a department or team responsible for online education. This department can answer questions regarding compliance for your home state. Additionally, you can locate the school through SARA (if it is a SARA institution) to confirm compliance.

Resources

[1] http://publicservicecareers.org/career-resources/employment-salary-trend/
[2]
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/02/28/for-millennials-a-bachelors-degree-continues-t o-pay-off-but-a-masters-earns-even-more/

[3] https://naspaaaccreditation.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/2014-15-data-report-for-web.pdf
[4] http://www.governing.com/columns/gov-understanding-value-of-mpa-mpp-degrees.html
[5] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/social-and-community-service-managers.htm
[6] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/political-scientists.htm
[7] https://www.bls.gov/oes/1998/oes_def1.htm
[8] https://datausa.io/profile/cip/440401/
[9] http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=City_Manager/Salary
[10] http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Degree=Master_of_Public_Administration_(MPA)/Salary
#by_Years_Experience

[11] http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Human_Resources_(HR)_Director/Salary
[12] https://naspaaaccreditation.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/2014-15-data-report-for-web.pdf
[13] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/social-and-community-service-managers.htm
[14] https://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2007/spring/art03.pdf
[15] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/business-and-financial/budget-analysts.htm
[16] https://naspaaaccreditation.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/2014-15-data-report-for-web.pdf
[17] https://naspaaaccreditation.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/2014-15-data-report-for-web.pdf
[18] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/social-and-community-service-managers.htm
[19] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/business-and-financial/budget-analysts.htm
[20] http://publicservicecareers.org/career-resources/employment-salary-trend/
[21] http://publicservicecareers.org/degrees-for-public-service-careers/the-mpampp/curriculum/
[22] http://colleendilen.com/2010/05/17/5-reasons-why-i-choose-to-pursue-an-mpa-over-an-mba/
[23] http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/law/law-divisions-and-codes/public-admin istration
[24] http://www.naspaa.org/
[25] https://accreditation.naspaa.org/resources/roster-of-accredited-programs/
[26] http://www.aspanet.org/
[27] http://www.naspaa.org/
[28] http://www.aabpa.org/
[29] http://www.allianceonline.org/
[30] http://www.appam.org/
[31] http://www.fedmanagers.org/

[32] https://www.britannica.com/topic/public-administration
[33] https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KY3mAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA1059&lpg=PA1059&dq=Master %27s+in+Public+Administration+degree+1913+university+of+michigan&source=bl&ots=xdBuW x6POZ&sig=zbrE6-vHqHJDADeG2AqHCSEzbKw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiVkpyUk7vTAh VJYVAKHcK1CnUQ6AEIVzAC#v=onepage&q=Master’s%20in%20Public%20Administration%2 0degree%201913%20university%20of%20michigan&f=false
[34] https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xtmdLF-7SX8C&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=Master%27s+in +Public+Administration+degree+1913+university+of+michigan&source=bl&ots=6qIui2VNCM&si g=UoXvEf2bnB2HxDTJcLxf3S1j-SA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiVkpyUk7vTAhVJYVAKHcK1 CnUQ6AEIaDAG#v=onepage&q=Master’s%20in%20Public%20Administration%20degree%201
913%20university%20of%20michigan&f=false

[35] https://www.britannica.com/topic/public-administration
[36] http://www.naspaa.org/JPAEMessenger/Article/VOL23-1/JPAE%2023_01%2020170118%2007 _Haupt.pdf
[37] https://naspaaaccreditation.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/naspaa-accreditation-standards.pdf
[38] http://www.naspaa.org/JPAEMessenger/Article/VOL23-1/JPAE%2023_01%2020170118%2007 _Haupt.pdf
[39] https://accreditation.naspaa.org/resources/roster-of-accredited-programs/
[40] http://www.naspaa.org/JPAEMessenger/Article/VOL23-1/JPAE%2023_01%2020170118%2007 _Haupt.pdf
[41] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/urban-and-regional-planners.htm
[42] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/administrative-services-managers.htm
[43] https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/social-and-community-service-managers.htm
[44] http://nc-sara.org/
[45] https://fafsa.ed.gov/
[46] http://www.naspaa.org/about_naspaa/naspaa.asp
[47] http://www.naspaa.org/students/faq/faq.asp#question_2